Glossary

Glossary for lingoking language services

  1. Glossary for text translation
  2. Glossary for conference interpreting
  3. Glossary for website translation

 

Find the full lingoking glossary download pdf here: Glossary (ca. 1.74 MB)


Glossary text translation

This glossary explains terms which are regularly used in connection with text translations. Find the lingoking glossary text translation for download here: glossary text translation (ca. 1.14 MB)

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N U P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A

Automatic translation/Machine translation
An automatic translation describes a translation carried out with the aid of a computer programme or the use of a human translator. The current most prominent example of this is Google Translate.

B

Background text
Text which provides background information on the content of the source text and facilitates the work of the translator.

C

CAT tool
CAT stands for computer-aided translation or computer-assisted translation. A machine translation is clearly different from a translation carried out by a human translator with the help of CAT tools. The latter corresponds to the work of a professional translator with the support of a computer. Well-known CAT tools are, for example, SDL Trados, Across, MemoQ, Memsource and various free systems such as Anaphraseus, OmegaT and many more. A CAT tool’s programme software is comprised of various subsystems which were designed for the work of professional, human translators. This software does not do any translating but rather supports professional, human translators. The use of CAT tools has many advantages, such as increased text quality, shorter delivery times due to more efficient work resulting in cost savings and optimised cost control.

Certified translation
Translation carried out by a sworn translator, which has been checked in line with the source text.

Conference translator
Translators who mostly work with international organisations and who translate documents such as speeches or rulings immediately after a conference.

D

Data protection & security
All translators employed by lingoking must sign a confidentiality agreement or a non-disclosure agreement (NDA). lingoking is happy to adapt or add to this agreement at the customer’s request. Every tested and approved translator is also bound by a professional code — a prerequisite for working with lingoking.

DIN EN ISO 17100
European quality standard for the translation industry, which was introduced by the European Committee for Standards in 2006.

L

Literary translator
Translators who translate fiction, specialist and non-fiction literature. The aesthetic components play a particular role in these translations.

Localisation
The term ‘localisation’ refers to the adaptation of a product — e.g. software or website— for a country, region and/or cultural area. This means that all of the content is adapted to the language, cultural background and also the prevailing laws, norms and market demands of the target area.

M

Multimedia Service (MMS)
This service includes all necessary processes which must be carried out when processing and preparing files and which are prefixed in the translation process. All the content from the multimedia files such as text, images, graphs, videos and tables is extracted so that the specialist translator only has to translate the words in front of him. lingoking project management calculates beforehand the requirements for the pre- and postprocessing of all of the files requiring translation.

N

Native Language 
This term describes the first language that a person learns without school instruction.

P

Proofreading
Proofreading is carried out by a second native-speaker specialist translator and includes, on the one hand, correction of the text, i.e. the grammar and spelling, as well as a review of the contents of the document. This quality assurance measure is standard for texts for publication.

S

Source Text
Also known as the original text. The term source text describes the text which is to be translated.

Subtitler
Translators who mostly translate spoken language for theatre, film and television.

Sworn translator
Legally certified court-approved translators who confirm the correct translation of a text into the target language using a stamp.

T

Target Text
The source text or original is translated into the desired target language and thus becomes the target text.

Technical Translator
Translators who specialise in translating certain types of texts and subjects.

Translation Management System (TMS)
A TMS is comprised of Translation Memories, terminology management tools and configurable workflows. A high degree of efficiency is achieved throughout all steps of the translation process due to the centralisation of all steps in one system. A full inspection of the entire translation cycle is also possible at any time. As well as short translation times, other advantages include the improvement of translation quality and a reduction in costs.

Translation Memory Tool System (TMT)
A TMT is part of a CAT tool, i.e. computer-assisted translation software, which facilitates and speeds up the translation process with the aid of translation memories and completion suggestions. As the name suggests, a TMT is a bit like a ‘linguistic memory’. This tool should prevent repeated words, descriptions and phrases from needing to be retranslated over and over again. The software saves the chosen translator’s version and recalls it if the same string of words appears again. The software also offers automatic completion of sentences and strings of words. The translator can then decide whether his or her version should be maintained. These versions or translations are saved in a database. Today, a TMT is a standard component of any high-quality translation software.

Termbase (TB)/Terminology database
A Termbase describes a data management programme for terminology entries. It enables the translator to use uniform, tested specialist and company terminology while simultaneously avoiding unwanted terminology.

 

 


Glossary for conference interpreting

This glossary explains terms which are regularly used in connection with conference translations. Find the lingoking glossary conference interpreting for download here: glossary conference interpreting (ca. 1.19 MB)

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A

A Language
According to the definition of the International Association of Conference Interpreters, the A language is the conference interpreter’s native language. The interpreter interprets out of this language and into this language (both directions) (see also B and C languages).

Accommodation & board
When interpreting is required over several days and accommodation and board is required for the interpreter, the customer carries the cost for board and any accommodation required during the event.

B

B Language
Description of the conference interpreter’s foreign language which he or she speaks at a native level. The interpreter interprets out of this language and into this language (both directions) (see also A and C languages).

C

C Language (also: passive language)
Description of the conference interpreter’s foreign language. The interpreter only interprets out of this language (one-way) (see also A and B languages).

Cancellation fee
A cancellation fee is generally agreed upon so that the costs and part of the fee are reimbursed if a contract is terminated prematurely.

Cheval
A cheval (French: horse) is an interpreter who sits ‘astride’ two booths. Usually there are at least two interpreters for each language. If, however, the meeting, which is being simultaneously interpreted, is only carried out in two languages, an interpreter can be saved by the use of a cheval, an interpreter who is able to interpret in both languages and who switches between the two in the other booth according to need.

Chuchotage
See: Whispered interpreting

Conference Technology (also: Interpreting technology; Event technology)
Conference technology describes the technical equipment which is required for interpreting: soundproofed interpreting booths, interpreting console, microphone, transmitter, receiver, headphones, cables etc. This may also include technical personnel responsible for set-up and dismantling, and all other technical installations (e.g. sound technology, projectors, daylight projectors) which are used during the event.

Conference Interpreter
Professional interpreters who are skilled throughout the entire spectrum of interpreting techniques (simultaneous interpreting, consecutive interpreting, negotiation interpreting, whispered interpreting).

Confidentiality & secrecy
All lingoking interpreters are subject to a strict privacy statement and the professional code of ethics, and therefore undertake to deal with business and customer information confidentially (also ethical and professional conduct). lingoking is also happy to sign a special non-disclosure agreement with you.

Consecutive interpreting
In consecutive interpreting, the translation of longer sections of speech occurs at a delayed pace - in contrast to simultaneous interpreting- and often involves use of notes (also note-taking technology) following the speaker’s speech. The number of consecutive interpreters required varies according to the length of the speech and technical complexity.
Due to the delayed consecutive interpretation, it must be calculated approximately as double the time in contrast to simultaneous interpretation.
Application areas: bilateral negotiations, celebratory occasions (celebratory speeches), tours, table and welcome talks, etc.

Costs
The costs for interpreting are composed of the following components and vary according to the type and duration of interpreting: interpreting fee, travel costs, conference/interpreting technology, accommodation, daily allowance, travel fee, consultation/organisation fee for the interpreter consulted, remuneration for usage rights.

F

Fee
The fee for an interpreter is usually charged at the daily rate. In addition, for a clear interpreting service on the day of the event, this fee also covers the organisational preparations, training on the subject, terminology research in advance, follow-up and maintenance of terminology afterwards.
lingoking also offers hourly fees and half-day rates for shorter periods.

I

Interpreting booth
Soundproof interpreting booths can be used for simultaneous interpreting. As a working space for simultaneous interpreters, these must - in line with standards ISO 4043, ISO 2603, CEI 914 and DIN 56924 - meet certain standards regarding sound insulation, lighting, technical equipment, ventilation, view of speaker(s) and event, etc. See also: Conference/Interpreting technology

Interpreting notes
Consecutive interpreters normally use note-taking to aid their memory. This enables them to condense the rendered text and capture it fully in written form, and then allows it to be transformed into a high-quality interpretation.

N

Negotiation interpreting
Negotiation interpreting is another form of consecutive interpreting. Short text passages are translated at a delay, section by section, into the desired target languages.
Fields of application: Negotiations on “round tables”, technical talks (e.g. introductions to machines) etc.

P

Pivot
Pivot describes interpreting which uses a single relay language. If one or two interpreters have a less common language as their passive language, they are described as “pivots” for the other interpreting booths for which they serve as relays.

Professional code of ethics
All lingoking conference interpreters sign a strict secrecy statement and undertake to work according to the industry’s guidelines in line with the professional code of ethics. Consequently, they commit to working with discretion, professionalism and quality.

R

Relay interpreting
Relay interpreting is a type of interpretation which can be used when two or more languages are being spoken. There is one team of interpreters for each language and these translate out of the foreign language into the conference language and vice versa.
“Relay interpreting” refers to when an interpreter does not directly translate out of the speaker’s original language but relies on the interpretation of a colleague. For example, at a conference where German, English and Japanese are spoken, the speaker has a speech in Japanese. If interpretation into English is required and the English-German interpreter speaks no Japanese, he can listen to the interpretation by his colleague in the Japanese booth who is translating the spoken language into German. This interpretation serves therefore as a foundation for his own translation into English.

Remote interpreting
In remote interpreting, participants or listeners are in a different place to the simultaneous interpreters. The interpreter is connected to the listeners via headphones. Possible uses include for example telephone and video conferences. Remote interpreting is used for all events where interpreters are used but where there is not sufficient space for a professional booth including simultaneous technology. Possible uses include e.g. in very small or unusual spaces, such as the reception in a tower or training taking place outside, where translation is required.

Retour interpreting
Here, the interpreter translates the spoken word of his native language into a foreign language. Generally, interpreters translate from the source language into their native language, the target language. Some interpreters however can master a second language at a native level (second active or ‘B’ language) and are therefore in a position to interpret “back” or “retour”. This French word for ‘back’ is used worldwide.

S

Simultaneous interpreting
In simultaneous interpreting the spoken language is translated almost concurrently, in “real time”. This requires a high degree of concentration and cognitive abilities, which is why at least two simultaneous interpreters normally work together in one interpretation booth and are required to switch after approx. 30 mins.
Fields of application: multilingual events, conferences, meetings, negotiations, press conferences etc.

T

Tour guide system
Tour guide systems have been specially designed for town or factory tours, which often involve a change of location and are mostly held in larger groups of approx 15-20 people. Interpreting can only occur in one direction with a tour guide system. They are therefore not a replacement for expensive simultaneous technology systems.

Translation
Translation refers to the written translation of content from one source language into a target language.

Travel costs
The travel costs for interpreters are comprised of compensation for travel time and travel costs for the journey to and from the location. They are generally calculated at € 0.80 plus VAT per kilometre and per interpreter.

U

Usage rights
An interpreting service is only specified for immediate consultation. If the customer plans or wishes to further use the interpretation - e.g. a live translation via radio, television or internet, or web streaming, or a recording for subsequent use- the interpreter must be informed. The appropriate usage rights are charged separately.

V

Video conferences with interpreting
A particular challenge for interpreters, technicians and technical personnel is the interpretation of video conferences. To preserve important regulations and norms, the professional associations have produced a code for using new technologies at interpreting conferences. The lingoking project managers are very familiar with this code and are happy to consult customers individually and extensively on the subject.

W

Whispered interpreting (also: Chuchotage)
Whispered translation is another form of simultaneous interpreting which is only suitable for certain occasions and situations. Interpreters are usually close to the person or persons whose speech is to be interpreted and whisper the interpretation of their speech to the person or people listening. For longer periods - more than a maximum of an hour - two conference interpreters are used, and these interpret for one to three listeners. The limit of the number of listeners is in the interest of all participants and is strongly advised for acoustic reasons.


Glossary for website translation

This glossary explains terms which are regularly used in connection with website translations. Find the lingoking glossary website translation for download here: glossary website translation (ca. 1.15 MB)

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A

Automatic translation/Machine translation
An automatic translation describes a translation carried out with aid of a computer programme or use of a human translator. The current most prominent example of this is Google Translate.

C

CAT tool
CAT stands for computer-aided translation or computer-assisted translation. A machine translation is clearly different from a translation carried out by a human translator with the help of CAT tools. The latter corresponds to the work of a professional translator with the support of a computer. Well-known CAT tools are, for example, SDL Trados, Across, MemoQ, Memsource and various free systems such as Anaphraseus, OmegaT and many more. A CAT tool’s programme software is comprised of various subsystems which were designed for the work of professional, human translators.
This software does not do any translating but rather supports professional, human translators. The use of CAT tools has many advantages, such as increased text quality, shorter delivery times due to more efficient work resulting in cost savings and optimised cost control.

Content Management System (CMS)
A Content Management System is a software programme which manages the content of a website. The entire content is summarised, edited and translated into several languages.

D

Data protection & security
All translators employed by lingoking must sign a confidentiality agreement or a non-disclosure agreement (NDA). lingoking is happy to adapt or add to this agreement at the customer’s request. Every tested and approved translator is also bound by a professional code— a prerequisite for working with lingoking. For translations directly into the customer’s Content Management System, translators have access to relevant folders and pages chosen by the customer in the CMS throughout the whole translation process.

I

Internationalisation
Development or alteration of a product (e.g. software) in order to facilitate or enable its localisation. It encompasses, among other things, the swapping of country and region-specific information such as screen text in external files and the use of character encoding (e.g. Unicode), which supports the characters of other languages.

L

Localisation
Localisation refers to the adaption of a product - e.g. a software or website - for a country, region or/and a culture. This means that all of the content is adapted to the language, cultural background and also the prevailing laws, norms and market demands of the target area.

M

Multimedia Service (MMS)
This service includes all processes required for preparing files and which are prefixed for the translation process. All the content from the multimedia files such as text, images, graphs, videos and tables is extracted so that the specialist translator only has to translate the words in front of him. lingoking project management calculates beforehand the requirements for the pre- and postprocessing of all of the files requiring translation.

P

Proofreading
Proofreading is carried out by a second native-speaker specialist translator and includes, on the one hand, correction of the text, i.e. the grammar and spelling, as well as a review of the contents of the document. This quality-assurance measure is standard for texts for publication.

S

Source text
Also known as the original text. The term source text describes the text which is to be translated.

T

Target text
The source text or original is translated into the desired target language and thus becomes the target text.

Translation Management System (TMS)
A TMS is comprised of Translation Memories, terminology management tools and configurable workflows. A high degree of efficiency is achieved throughout all steps of the translation process due to the centralisation of all steps in one system. A full inspection of the entire translation cycle is also possible at any time. As well as short translation times, other advantages include the improvement of translation quality and an up to 50% reduction in costs.

Translation Memory Tool System (TMT)
A TMT is part of a CAT tool, i.e. computer-assisted translation software, which facilitates and speeds up the translation process with the aid of translation memories and completion suggestions. As the name suggests, a TMT is a bit like a ‘linguistic memory’. This tool should prevent repeated words, descriptions and phrases from needing to be retranslated over and over again. The software saves the chosen translator’s version and recalls it if the same string of words appears again. The software also offers automatic completion of sentences and strings of words. The translator can then decide whether his or her version should be maintained. These versions or translations are saved in a database. A TMT is not standard for any high-quality translation software.

Termbase (TB)/Terminology database
A Termbase describes a data management programme for terminology entries. It enables the translator to use uniform, tested specialist and company terminology while simultaneously avoiding unwanted terminology.

Translation Memory eXchange (TMX)
TMX stands for Translation Memory Exchange Format. A TMX file is a “Translation Memory”, arguably the “memory” of a terminology database which is present in a standardised format and which is supported by all popular Translation Memory programmes.


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